Author Archives: gwen riley jones

The magnificent Overlord Embroidery at the D-Day Museum

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On Friday 11th November CHICC photographers Gwen and Tony visited the D-Day Museum to view the Overlord Embroidery and design a workflow for its digitisation next year. The D-Day Museum has been awarded £4 million by the Heritage Lottery Fund to enable Portsmouth City Council, with support of the Portsmouth D-Day Museum Trust, to create an international museum to tell the story of D-Day in the 21st Century. The digitisation of Overlord Embroidery will form content for the improved galleries that will tell the story of D-Day – from the planning and build up to the day itself – using objects, interactive material and the perspectives of people who were alive at the time.

We arrived a little early for our meeting at the D-Day Museum, which gave us time to see the promenade and the Southsea Rock Gardens which are within 5 minutes walking distance to the museum. IMG_2634.jpg

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Southsea Rock Gardens

Upon arrival at the D-Day Museum we had the privilege of a private view of the Overlord Embroidery, before the Museum opened to visitors. I was immediately struck by the beauty of the Overlord Embroidery, by the brilliance of the colours of the tapestry and the stunning visual effect of the appliqué (my iPhone photos do not do it justice!).

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The Overlord Embroidery was inspired by the Bayeux Tapestry, commissioned by Lord Dulverton, late head of Wills tobacco family, to show the reality of war – not to glorify it. Sandra Lawrence, aged 21, was appointed to produce the original watercolours on which the embroidery is based. The Ministry of Defence provided historical support and advice on how Operation Overlord could be represented in picture form. The Royal School of Needlework produced the embroidery from Sandra Lawrence’s watercolour designs at a total cost of £36,000. The original watercolours were presented to the US Dept. of Defense by the Sir David Wills Charitable Trust in 1994 to mark the 50th anniversary of D-Day and are now on display in the Pentagon in Washington DC.

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The embroidery is truly magnificent, it is 83 metres long, which is displayed across 34 panels, each panel 2.4 x 0.9 metres in size. More than 50 different materials were used during the making of the embroidery – including 320 metres of cording used to edge parts of the design, it is these cording details which gives the embroidery an uncanny 3D effect. This is an important visual feature of the embroidery, and we will design our digitisation lighting methodology to mimic the museum lighting which captures the highlights of the cording to very striking effect. Designing a bespoke lighting methodology, rather than using a standard flat copy style of lighting, will also ensure that the digital images are sympathetic and complementary to the displayed physical object, allowing digital and physical interpretation to comfortably together.

It took 20 embroiderers and five apprentices five years to complete the embroidery, and this is evident in the development of style and techniques used, as you walk along the embroidery the developments in process and methods are clearly visible. Digitisation will take approximately seven days of digital capture on site at the D-Day Museum, with five days post-capture processing and digital stitching back in the studio. We will be documenting our own methods and processes for digitisation both here on the blog, and with a range of engagement activities at the time of digitisation in March 2017.

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As soon as our meeting was over we took one last breath of fresh sea air before we began our long journey back to Manchester. I have to say, the train station at Portsmouth Harbour has one of the best parting views of any city that I have ever seen.

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On the way back to Manchester we discovered an interesting Rylands link to the local area. John Rylands purchased a property, Corston House, on the Isle of Wight in 1882 (a stones throw across The Solent from Portsmouth) and was a benefactor on the island.

There is a steam railway museum on the island (which the D-Day Museum’s very own staff member, Andy is involved with) which is housed in the old gasworks which were built by John Rylands! After John Rylands’ death in 1888, Mrs Rylands converted Corston House in to a rest home for ministers.

Keep your eye on the blog for more updates on the Overlord Embroidery project in the Spring of 2017.

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Techniques for recovering lost texts

Research Fellow Renate Smithuis and Research Associate Stefania Silvestri, are working on a Catalogue of Codices, Scrolls, and Other Texts in Hebrew Script in The University of Manchester Library.

The Library holds one of the most important smaller collections of Hebrew manuscripts in Europe and this project will create a full, online catalogue compliant with current cataloguing and metadata standards. To support the production of the catalogue, digitisation of a number of manuscripts is being undertaken. All images, included fully digitised volumes, are added to the Hebraica Collection in the John Rylands Library Image Collections, LUNA.

A substantial portion of the Rylands Gaster manuscript collection have already been selected for digitisation, including a number of manuscripts that suffered water damage during the Second World War. The level of water damage varies, some texts are still legible but faint, others have whole sections of pages rendered illegible.

The Heritage Imaging Team have been investigating the best way to recover the text in these volumes, unsurprisingly, we have found that a single solution does not fit all. The aim of this blog post is to demonstrate the different processing options available to researchers. We are researcher-led in the work that we do with Multispectral Imaging of our collections, so if you come across a text you cannot read, please get in touch to discuss your needs in more detail (email: uml.chicc@manchester.ac.uk).

I should note at this point that these examples are not exhaustive and we are always in the process of developing new techniques.

Trials in image processing have been run on pages from Gaster Hebrew MS 1832. The first step of carrying out any specialist techniques is to produce a high resolution ‘standard’ light photographs. These are the images that you can access in high resolution in our online image collections. Often, close inspection at high resolution enables a reader to decipher more than they can read with the ‘naked eye’.

In this example, the first image shows page 1 recto of Gaster Hebrew MS 1832 in ‘standard’ light. You are able to see that there is some faded text on the page but it is extremely faded in some areas:

Gaster Hebrew MS 1832

Gaster Hebrew MS 1832 1 recto standard image

The second image shows a standard high resolution image which has undergone additional image processing in Photoshop. The image has been inverted to help the text show through in certain areas of the page.

Gaster Hebrew MS 1832

Gaster Hebrew MS 1832 1 recto standard image with processing

The third image shows page 1 recto again, a standard high resolution image which has undergone processing in Photoshop to bring out the most faded central areas of the text.

Gaster Hebrew MS 1832

Gaster Hebrew MS 1832 1 recto standard image with additional processing

Here is a detail from each file type for comparison:

The benefit of this approach is that these results can be achieved without any additional imaging of the manuscript and standard photo manipulation software can be used. In addition, once results have been achieved, these can be batch applied to a set of images for an entire manuscript. The results may not be 100% consistent depending upon the range of damage to each page, but if the results are ‘good enough’ it will save many hours of image processing time.

 

Our next example shows firstly, page 2 recto of Gaster Hebrew MS 1832 in ‘standard’ light, plus an example of the same image which has been processed in Photoshop:

However, with this example we took several further steps to recover the lost text. In this instance, the manuscript has also been imaged using Multispectral Imaging. We now use a Phase One Achromatic IQ260 digital back, iXr camera body and standard lens combined with Megavision LED lighting panels and a filter wheel to capture 17 images at different points along the electromagnetic spectrum. I have included 2 images here, take at 370nm (UV) with a long pass violet filter, and at 448nm (Deep blue) as these single images give the best results. In the infrared wavelength, the text on this manuscript disappeared completely, which suggests that it is an iron gall based ink.

 

Using multispectral imaging we are able to take our image processing and textual recovery even further. Using ImageJ software I have combined several of the individual wavelengths to create a ‘pseudocolour’ image. This applies false colours to areas of difference across the page. Note the two images below in colour.

The colour results are not attractive to every eye, especially to the colour blind so can be converted in to greyscale. In the examples here, I have added an additional filter using the Channel Mixer in Photoshop to increase the contrast of the text even further.

Here you can see details of all 8 examples described above, click on the image to flick through each detail.

There are obvious benefits of taking every possible step of image processing to recover as much text as possible. However, there are also drawbacks. The manuscript must be subjected to a second round of digitisation using the Multispectral Imaging system, this is not only time consuming, but for fragile items it also increases the possible risk of damage to the physical item. There is additional time required for the photographer to process the images and store the additional data. Metadata must be produced to accompany the new images and to detail the processing work that has been carried out on the images.

Finally depending upon the nature of the damage to the page, a reader may need to consult a combination of 2 or 3 final processed images in order to read the entire page. Additionally, there must be a flow of communication between the reader/researcher and the person processing the images in order to process the ‘best’ results.

Specialists are currently working on software solutions to allow us to present the data to readers which will allow the reader themselves to combine and ‘play’ with images to suit their needs. We will report on developments in this area when they are available. Until then, we will continue to take a ‘triage’ approach to image recovery, assessing each item against the needs of the researcher to take the right steps to uncover lost texts.

 

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Revealing Galen’s Simples at UPenn… and a whole lot more

Processed image of the Syriac Galen Palimpsest at Revealing Galens Simples Workshop, Kislak Centre for Special Collections, UPenn

Processed image of the Syriac Galen Palimpsest at Revealing Galens Simples Workshop, Kislak Centre for Special Collections, UPenn

 

An article published in the New York Times on June 1, 2015, described the discovery of a Syriac manuscript that contained the oldest known translation of Galen’s On the Mixtures and Powers of Simple Drugs. Nearly a year later, scholars, scientists and imaging specialists came together for ‘Revealing Galen’s Simples‘ a workshop and symposium hosted by the Kislak Centre for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts at the University of Pennsylvania. On Wednesday 27th April CHICC’s Carol (Heritage Imaging Manager) Tony and Gwen (Heritage Photographers) travelled to Philadelphia to take part in the event. Here is a brief overview of our time at the conference, and associated meetings, which were truly inspiring and have changed the way we think about the way we work.

Philadelphia on the horizon

Philadelphia on the horizon

We arrived at UPenn on Thursday morning and began our day of meetings with a tour of the SCETI (Schoenberg Center for Electronic Text and Images) digitisation suite. We met with Mick Overgard and his colleagues and discussed all things digitisation, including some skills swap sessions, they demonstrated the new Capture One Cultural Heritage software capabilities – (a vast improvement on the trial we had tested last year – thanks for the demo Andrea!) and we shared our multi-spectral imaging developments and techniques for imaging gold. A really fruitful discussion around advanced imaging techniques followed and we hope that SCETI might join AHFAP so that we can keep the conversation going. In fact we had so much to say that we had to come back after our next meeting to carry on our conversations!

The team at SCETI are very impressive, highly skilled and very friendly – we couldn’t believe that we came all the way to Philadelphia and bumped into a Liverpudlian though (hi Craig!). We were very jealous of the space the team have to work in, each photographer has their own ‘pod’ and they have given us lots of ideas about how to maximise space in our modest studio. I was also particularly impressed with the presence of a record player and a huge stack of vinyl, great idea!

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Following our meeting with SCETI we met with Dot Porter, Curator of Digital Research Services, and Mitch Fraas, Curator of Special Collections, to discuss digital collections, access, discoverability and engagement. Dot told us about different aspects of her engagement work including a workshop she recently delivered to students at Yale on how to access and download digital content and told us more about her video orientations for manuscripts (watch this space!).

We then met with data geniuses Doug Emery and Jessie Dummer to learn about OPENN, a revolutionary way of delivering Open Access image data. The data is presented in a simple structure that enables you to download an entire manuscript in high resolution, very easily using wget. All of the data on the site is in the public domain or released under Creative Commons licences as Free Cultural Works. This repository is now the home of the Archimedes Palimpsest and the Syriac Galen Palimpsest. The data is presented with long term storage and accessibility in mind, and all data is in a digital preservation format. The interface is not inspiring, but is designed so that anyone can use the data to build their own front-end. As more institutions begin to deliver their data in this way, the opportunities for digital curation are endless.

This meeting was followed by a sit down with Mike Toth, Project Manager for both the Archimedes and Syriac Galen Palimpsest Projects and Will Noel, Director, Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts and Schoenberg Institute for Manuscript Studies. Following a very quick ‘get to know each other’ we began to discuss potential collaborative projects and very quickly came up with some very viable ideas. We are now, already, in the process of putting pilots for these projects in place. We will announce developments here.

These very inspiring meetings were rounded off with some refreshments at Monk’s Cafe – the home of so many beers, they have their own bible! (From left to right, Doug Emery, Meghan Hill, Bill Christen-Barry, Mike Toth, Gwen Riley Jones, Carol Burrows. Photo by Tony Richards)

After a very fruitful day of meetings, some refreshment was required!

After a very fruitful day of meetings, some refreshment was required!

Day two began with an exclusive look at the Syriac Galen Manuscript itself, with an introduction from Abigail Quandt, Head of Book and Paper Conservation at the Walters Art Museum and lead conservator on the Archimedes and the Syriac Galen Palimpsest Projects. Abigail explained both the processes for dis-binding (so flat pages of the manuscript could be imaged using multispectral imaging) and rebinding the palimpsest for this project, but also how the palimpsest was made in the first place. The pages of Galen’s text were soaked in some kind of acid, milk or lemon juice maybe, to remove the text – rather than the alternative process of scraping off the old text. After being soaked in acid, the pages were coated with a white chalky substance, which is still visible in some places, before the over-text was written. These techniques have a significant effect of the chemical make up of the manuscript, and therefore how it performs under light during multi-spectral imaging.

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Revealing Galen Simples Workshop Group Photo

Revealing Galen Simples Workshop Group Photo

This fascinating introduction was followed by a series of informal presentations and discussions amongst the scientists and the scholars, before the groups split off to do more detailed work in the afternoon. The scholars had the opportunity to work collaboratively, deciphering the text, whilst the imaging scientists compared techniques for image processing. It was very interesting to compare the benefits of different techniques (there is not one techniques which is ‘best’) and also think about what is ‘good enough’ – a question you can only really answer when imaging scientists and scholars are able to work closely together. Open Access data and spaces for cross-discipline scholarship, such as the John Rylands Research Institute, are the key to enable these types of research partnerships.

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During the afternoon workshop sessions, the CHICC team took the opportunity to take a ‘break-out’ session with Meghan [Hill] Wilson, Multi-spectral Imaging Preservation Specialist, Library of Congress. Meghan has trained in advanced camera and spectral imaging system operation, imaging processing software, database management, metadata creation, digital data storage, and object cataloging. As we are finalising our multi-spectral imaging strategy and workflows, Meghan’s advice and expertise was invaluable. We were very interested in the wide-range of applications of multi-spectral imaging, beyond only palimpsests. We invited Meghan to come to Manchester to deliver advance workflow and data management training for our multi-spectral imaging work, to deliver a seminar to share with curators, conservators and researchers the varied uses of multi-spectral imaging, and to collaborate on some of her own research work in to identifying pigments. I am very pleased to say that we have now secured funding for Meghan’s visit and we look forward to welcoming her to Manchester this summer.

On Saturday was the symposium itself, you can view the list of speakers here. The talks included 3 cross-discipline speakers from the University of Manchester, Peter Pormann, Director of the John Rylands Research Institute and Professor of Classics and Graeco-Arabic Studies on The Final Frontier: Galen’s Syriac Versions and Graeco-Arabic Translation Technique, Dr. Bill Sellers, Faculty of Life Sciences on Working with the Data and Dr Corneliu Arsene, Faculty of Humanities on his new techniques for Revealing the Palimpsest. In addition to the Manchester speakers, we heard from a range of historians, scholars, scientists, conservators and data managers in a truly cross-discipline discussion on the subject. There was also another chance to view the manuscript, in the somewhat more historic setting of the Henry Charles Lea Library.

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In amongst all this work we did get a little time to see some sights, starting with the Liberty Bell (see photographers at work), but somehow the work always seemed to carry on in the bar…! We also came across a statue of ‘Barry’ – who it turns out is a distant relative of our colleague Bill Christens-Barry, picked up some fashion tips for Jamie – who was back at the ranch. Met Millie Emery, Doug Emery’s very gorgeous bulldog! And finally ran up the Rocky steps (well one of us did) in a not so sunny Philadelphia! We had an absolutely fantastic trip, it was so valuable to be able to attend this conference first hand and be involved in conversations with the full team of people that have pioneered these important techniques. We have returned to the UK fired up and ready to develop our work on to the next stage. So a big thanks to the John Rylands Research Institute and Professor Peter Pormann’s AHRC funded project ‘The Syriac Galen Palimpsest: Galen’s On Simple Drugs and the Recovery of Lost Texts through Sophisticated Imaging Techniques’, to all at UPenn, and everyone involved in the symposium. And a special thanks to Mike Toth for his continued excellent work in bringing all of these people together.

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Earliest attempts at colour printing in the West on display for the first time

Imaging techniques developed by CHICC have underpinned research in to the earliest attempts at colour printing in the West. Selected prints are now on display at the British Museum as part of a new exhibition curated by British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow Dr Elizabeth Savage,  until 27 January 2016.

On the basis of microscopic analysis at the British Museum’s World Conservation and Exhibition Centre and photomacrographs taken by Gwen Riley Jones (CHICC), it has now been confirmed that the British Museum Charles V is the sixth known woodcut – and 20th impression – issued with gold printing ink before the 18th century.

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Attr. Hans Weiditz, Portrait of Charles V (1519), woodcut on vellum from two block (gold, black) with hand-colouring, 35.6 x 20.3 cm. Printed by Jost de Negker, Augsburg. The British Museum, London, 1862.0208.55. Image courtest of the Centre for Heritage Imaging and Collection Care, University of Manchester and © The Trustees of the British Museum.

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Detail of Portrait of Charles V (1519), image courtesy of the Centre for Heritage Imaging and Collection Care, University of Manchester and  © The Trustees of the British Museum.

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Detail of Portrait of Charles V (1519), image courtesy of the Centre for Heritage Imaging and Collection Care, University of Manchester and © The Trustees of the British Museum. 

 

The exhibition will examine the earliest attempts to incorporate colour into printmaking in the 1400s and 1500s in the German lands—where colour printmaking began in the West. It brings together 31 prints and one drawing, many of which are unique and have never been displayed together before, to present a representative survey of the first century of colour printing in Germany, where the technology developed.

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Dr Elizabeth Savage examining prints at the British Museum during image capture.

Curated by Dr Elizabeth Savage as a result of her British Academy funded research project, it is the first exhibition dedicated to the early history of colour prints in Renaissance and Reformation Germany. Before 1700, colour prints were thought to be extremely rare, if not technically impossible. The few outliers, like Italian chiaroscuro (tonal) woodcuts, are celebrated as visionary and exceptional. But new research has revealed hundreds of previously unknown colour prints. Circulating in thousands (if not tens of thousands) of impressions, colour prints decorated furniture, imitated expensive woods on ceilings, illustrated ideas in books, clarified religious iconography, and, of course, were admired as art.

By tracing technical developments and artistic and market trends across the sixteenth century, ‘German Renaissance Colour Woodcuts’ demonstrates that colour printing was part of daily life in Renaissance and Reformation Germany.

Dr Savage, British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow, said: “The history of prints is usually in black and white, but early prints were vibrant. Late medieval and early modern German printers pushed the emergent technology of the printing press to its limits in their quest to print colour. They, not the artists, controlled this artistic effect. The British Museum holds one of the world’s largest collections of early colour prints, so this is a unique opportunity to see how printers manipulated different palettes and achieved a range of stunning visual effects 500 years before Photoshop.”

The exhibition is arranged in five sections. Highlights include three of the six woodcuts printed with gold in early modern Europe.

Visiting Admission: Free and open to all.

Opening hours: 10.00–17.30 Saturday to Thursday and 10.00–20.30 Fridays.

Location: Room 90, British Museum, Great Russell Street, London, WC1B 3DG.

Where First I Heard of Peterloo

I first heard of Peterloo when I had been working at the Library for a few years and I was shown a little book, filled with names. It was the Peterloo Relief Fund Account Book (or English MS 172) a little notebook which records recipients of the Peterloo Relief Fund giving their names, addresses, details of their injuries and the amount of money paid to them.

Peterloo Relief Fund Account Book A list of recipients of the Peterloo relief fund giving their names, addresses, details of their injuries and the amount of money paid to them.

Peterloo Relief Fund Account Book
A list of recipients of the Peterloo relief fund giving their names, addresses, details of their injuries and the amount of money paid to them.

The next time I heard about Peterloo was during Manchester International Festival 2013 when Maxine Peake recited all 37 verses of Shelley’s poem, ‘The Masque of Anarchy’, directed by Sarah Frankcom, just yards from the site of the Peterloo Massacre itself.

But it was until Monday evening 5th October 2015, at a rally for The People’s Post organised by the CWU (Communication Worker’s Union) that I truly understood the significance of Peterloo and what went on at Peter’s Fields. When Lindsay German addressed the crowd of over 8000 people that had amassed in Cathedral Gardens, she spoke of the democratic reform that the Peterloo rally had been demonstrating for, and subsequently brought about.

Cathedral Gardens, Manchester, Monday 5th October 2015

Cathedral Gardens, Manchester, Monday 5th October 2015

I had not understood that those killed and injured at Peterloo had been taking part in a peaceful rally, much like the one I attended on Monday, to claim their democratic rights – and to defend the rights of the poor. In the back of the Peterloo Relief Account Book is a newspaper cutting, which is an account from a man named James Haslam, I have transcribed the cutting below so you can read about where first he heard of Peterloo:

‘When I was a boy I was very fond indeed of creeping into the handloom cellar at night – especially o’ winter nights – to hear the men of the moribund craft talk and sing and, by the way, swear about hard times. What a quaint, independent set of industrials they were. But they talked and sang sometimes of flowers, or love, or war, but mostly of hard social and political days. How they did anathematise the politicians of the hour, and, I am afraid, push revolutionary ideas into my young hear. I was to carry on – so Joss Wrigley said – their spirit of political revolt when they were dead and their wooden looms were made into firewood by the factory workers.

They were the Radicals of Lupton Yard, and when I read “The Revolution in Tanner’s Lane” I thought if Rutherford had known them he might have handed them to posterity.

It was there where I first heard of Peterloo.

“Peterloo, Peterloo,” was often the subject of fierce conversation and denunciation. There were four of them in the cellar, in addition to an old woman who, sitting in the middle of the semi-subterranean workshop, wound coarse weft bobbins for them on a wooden wheel and spindle.

Joss Wrigley was the leader of the poverty-stricken group. My father was the owner of the looms, all bought for a few shillings, and rented to the other three weavers for a few pence a week. Joss was a great talker. Ned Greenhalgh – gentle Ned – was a listener who nodded approval of Joss’s political outbursts. Nathan Clegg, who occasionally varied his weaving by a short term in the Debtors’ Gaol at Lancaster, helped Joss by swearing at capitalists and shopkeepers. Mary Miller, the bobbin-winder, sometimes shook with fear at the thought of what might be their plight if the police were to look in. Joss Wrigley had decorated – he called it decorated – one of his loomposts with verses from Ebenezer Elliott and democratic songs of Burns, cut from newspapers. My father sometimes played the fiddle to soothe their nerves – played old English airs and Jacobite songs.

There was a stove in the cellar, which was lighted when they could afford to buy coal. I used to hear most about Peterloo when the looms were silent and the stove was burning, and the decrepit weavers were “winding on” a new warp by candle-light. One of them would guide the threads through the healds, two would sit on each side straightening the yarn and picking out foreign particles; Joss Wrigley usually sat on a stool unfolding the warp, and, having the least responsible task, he would talk the most.

It was then that “Peterloo” rang mostly in my ears. Often I wondered where Peterloo was till I learned it was at Manchester, a few miles away.

A Plan of St. Peters Field in the town of Manchester. With the Avenues leading thereto.

A Plan of St. Peters Field in the town of Manchester. With the Avenues leading thereto.

Frequently I was puzzled to know why it was that they spoke so bitterly of it. Subsequently, I was informed that Joss Wrigley knew all about it, because he was there in support of the People’s Charter, as Joss described it. Joss was a slim, nervous man with white hair and long beard; for a man of 77 years he was still sprightly physically and alert mentally.

It was from these older-time weaver’s lips I first heard the names of Sam Bamford and Henry Hunt. There was only one picture on the walls of our “front” room, otherwise known as the parlour. To us a house was divided into a “front” room and a “back” room, or kitchen. At that time our “front” room was an odd-looking chamber. Owing to the height of one of the looms in the cellar it had been necessary to take up one or two flags – it ws a flagged floor, usually sanded – in the parlour to make room for the top portion of the Jacquard machine. All that the room held was this portion of the loom, protruding about a yard above the surface, two spindle-back chairs, a small deal table, a winding-frame worked by my mother, and the solitary picture alluded to, which was a newspaper print of Henry Hunt. The name was underneath – “Henry Hunt, Esq.” My mother knew no more of the August massacre of 1819 than she had learned from the heated harangues of Joss Wrigley, and it was she who told me that Henry Hunt was a man who had something to do with Peterloo.

I remember saying to my father one morning when he was playing his well-resined fiddle (his warp being “down”), “What was this Peterloo about?” “Ax Joss,” he said. “It were afore my time. Joss were theer. Fro’ what he says, it were a damnable thing – summat as workin’ folk should never forget!”

I was now particularly curious to know. And one day when Joss came from the cellar into the kitchen to beg some tea to drink with his meal of bread and cheese I put the question – boy-like- bluntly to him. I have never forgotton some of his Doric phrases. He drew me between his knees, and said, partly with pride and partly with indignation:

“Peterloo, lad! I know. I were theer as a young mon. We were howdin’ a meetin’ i’ Manchester – on Peter’s Field, – a meetin’ for eawr reets – for reets o’ mon, for liberty to vote, an’ speak, an’ write, an’ be eawrsels – honest, hard-workin’ folk. We wanted to live eawr own lives, an’ th’ upper classes wouldn’t let us. That’s abeawt it, lad. We were howdin’ a meetin’, a peaceful meetin’, an’ they sent t’dragoons among us to mow us deawn. T’ dirty devils – they sent t’ dragoons slashin’ at us wi’ their swords. There were some on us sheawtin’ ‘Stop! Stop! What are yo’ doin’ that for? We on’y want eawr reets.’ An’ they went on cuttin’ through us, an’ made us fly helter-skelter – aw because we were only howdin’ up t’ banner o’ liberty an’ t’ reets o’ mon. Bournes (Burns) says as ‘Liberty’s a glorious feast.’ But th’ upper classes wouldn’t let us poor folk get a tast on it. When we cried… freedom o’ action they gav’ us t’ point of a sword. Never forget, lad! Let it sink i’ thi blood. Ston up an’ feight for t’ reets o’ mon – t’ reets o’ poor folk!”

Peterloo poster, a public notice declaring illegal the public meeting to be held on the 9th of August 1819 near St Peter's Church, Manchester, and cautioning 'all persons' against attending. The meeting subsequently took place on the 16th August and became known as the Peterloo Massacre, after cavalry charged into the crowd causing death and injury.

Peterloo poster, a public notice declaring illegal the public meeting to be held on the 9th of August 1819 near St Peter’s Church, Manchester, and cautioning ‘all persons’ against attending. The meeting subsequently took place on the 16th August and became known as the Peterloo Massacre, after cavalry charged into the crowd causing death and injury.

“Banner o’ libery,” “t’reets o’ mon,” “t’ dragoons slashin among us wi’ their swords,” were dinned into my ears till I could not forget. I could not understand then why Joss was trembling with rage. I could not then understand why he, having lived for over fifty years after the event, should still permit it to disturb his mind. I suppose it had got in his blood, and he could not live it out. I presume also that continuous years of poverty, together with years of political injustice and vagaries, and dear food, through which he had lived, had helped to nurse his hatred, which he resolutely passed on to others.

An illustration from ' A Slap at Slop', a mock newspaper created by George Cruikshank and William Hone. Includes cartoons relating to the Peterloo Massacre which took place in Manchester in 1819.

An illustration from ‘ A Slap at Slop’, a mock newspaper created by George Cruikshank and William Hone. Includes cartoons relating to the Peterloo Massacre which took place in Manchester in 1819.

His political career began at Peterloo – a dramatic beginning, to be sure. It ended in a damp, dark handloom cellar, at the age of 81.

I remember asking my father years after – when thinking of the sayings and the songs of Joss – how much would be the earnings of Joss as a rule. I was told not more than 10s. to 12s. per week – sometimes a few shillings more, sometimes “nowt at aw.”

Yet to the very end of his hard days Joss rarely omitted, as far as I can recollect, to talk and swear about the struggle that began at Peterloo, and which he traced through the mob skirmishes in connection with the agitation for the first Reform Act, the aims of the Free Trade League, the Chartists, and the Plug Drawers. He talked and talked of these affairs of men, and the opposition to them, as he swund the shuttle across his loom, or as he sat in the impoverished kitchen or in the tavern at the corner of the mean street. He was only nineteen years of age when he escaped from the massacre of Peterloo. And who can say how much the working classes owe to men like Joss Wrigley – a poor handloom weaver who from his obscurity passed on their spirit and opinions to coming generations?’

Peterloo Relief Fund Account Book A list of recipients of the Peterloo relief fund giving their names, addresses, details of their injuries and the amount of money paid to them.

Peterloo Relief Fund Account Book
A list of recipients of the Peterloo relief fund giving their names, addresses, details of their injuries and the amount of money paid to them. The books contains a listing for a John Wrigley, but no Joss Wrigley.

Following the Peterloo Massacre a Relief Fund was established, supported by voluntary subscriptions, to provide financial support to those wounded and the families of those who had died. The John Rylands Library holds the Peterloo Relief Fund Account Book (see image) which has now been digitised and is available to view online.

Historians believe that the Peterloo Massacre was massively influential in changing public opinion, and played a pivotal role in winning democratic rights for ordinary people or as Joss Wrigley so eloquently put ‘for reets o’ mon, for liberty to vote, an’ speak, an’ write, an’ be eawrsels – honest, hard-workin’ folk’ (for the rights of man, for liberty to vote, and speak, and write, and be ourselves – honest, hard-working folk).

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Interdisciplinarity: Inside Manchester’s ‘arts lab’

‘Work at the CHICC is also revolutionizing understanding of papyri and palimpsests — manuscripts from which text has been erased to allow reuse of the page.’

CHICC’s ‘techniques have helped Elizabeth Savage to identify some of the earliest examples of printed gold ink.’

Detail of gold and black ink under raking light, from Lucas Cranach the Elder, St. George, 1507, colour woodcut from two blocks on prepared paper, 23.3 x 15.9 cm. London, British Museum, 1895, 0122.264. Image copyright of the British Museum. Image created by Gwen Riley Jones, Centre for Heritage Imaging and Collection Care, University of Manchester.

Detail of gold and black ink under raking light, from Lucas Cranach the Elder, St. George, 1507, colour woodcut from two blocks on prepared paper, 23.3 x 15.9 cm. British Museum, London, 1895, 0122.264. Image copyright of The Trustees of the British Museum. Image created by Gwen Riley Jones, Centre for Heritage Imaging and Collection Care, University of Manchester.

Detail of gold and black ink with hand colouring under raking light, from Attr. Hans Weiditz the Younger, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (1519), 35.6 x 20.3 cm. Printed by Jost e Negker, Augsburg. British Museum, London, 1862, 0208.55. Image copyright of The Trustees of the British Museum. Image created by Gwen Riley Jones, Centre for Heritage Imaging and Collection Care, University of Manchester.

Detail of gold and black ink with hand colouring under raking light, from Attr. Hans Weiditz the Younger, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (1519), 35.6 x 20.3 cm. Printed by Jost e Negker, Augsburg. British Museum, London, 1862, 0208.55. Image copyright of The Trustees of the British Museum. Image created by Gwen Riley Jones, Centre for Heritage Imaging and Collection Care, University of Manchester.

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Detail of colour woodcut from seven blocks under raking light, from Attr. Hans Weidlitz the Younger, Arms of Cardinal Matthāus Lang von Wellenburg (1520), 27.4 x 20.6 cm. Frontispiece to Liber selectarum cantionum, ed. Ludwig Senfl (Augsburg: Sigmund Grimm and Marx Wirsung, 1520). The British Museum, London, 1895, 0122.409. Image copyright of The Trustees of the British Museum. Image created by Gwen Riley Jones, Centre for Heritage Imaging and Collection Care, University of Manchester.

More on the techniques used by CHICC to reveal these exciting new discoveries in a post next week. But for now, read more about how the work of CHICC is underpinning activity at The John Rylands Research Institute – or ‘arts lab’ here:

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v525/n7569/full/525318a.html#close

A book 100 years older than the Magna Carta goes digital

Textus_Roffensis_0001 A manuscript predating the Magna Carta is to be seen, in full, online, by the public for the first time thanks to a project involving digital experts at The University of Manchester working in partnership with Rochester Cathedral.

The Textus Roffensis, a 12th century legal encyclopaedia compiled by a single scribe at Rochester Cathedral, in Kent, in the 1120s has been digitised by the University’s Centre for Heritage Imaging and Collection Care.

The medieval manuscript, which is almost 100 years older than King John’s Magna Carta and has been described as ‘Britain’s Hidden Treasure’ by the British Library, has never before been seen in its entirety by the public.
The University of Manchester’s Centre for Heritage Imaging and Collection Care provides specialist and bespoke solutions for the digitisation and collection care of heritage and cultural collections.

Dr Chris Monk, a specialist at the University who worked with Rochester Cathedral on the project, said: “The team here has vast experience digitizing rare books and manuscripts.  To work with this particular national treasure, one of such historical significance, has been remarkable.  And it will be just as exciting and remarkable for the public to see it up close – no longer a hidden treasure.
“The Textus Roffensis is truly a unique manuscript: it predates the Magna Carta by almost a hundred years, contains the only copy of the oldest set of laws in English, and was penned by an English scribe within 60 years of the Norman Conquest.  That it is being made accessible to the public is worth shouting about, and is a tribute to all those involved with the project.”
Written in Old English and Latin in 1123-24 AD, the Textus Roffensis is so called because of a 14th century inscription within the book, The Textus de Ecclesia Roffensi per Ernulphum episcopum (The Book of the Church of Rochester through Bishop Ernulf). It contains the Law of Aethelberht of Kent which dates back to 600AD – it is the only surviving copy of the oldest law in English.
Textus_Roffensis_0247
The book was originally two manuscripts. The first has the only surviving copies of three Kentish laws, including the Law of Aethelberht who was the King of Kent, from 560 to 616AD, and seen by some as ‘foundation documents of the English state’. King Alfred’s Domboc (book of laws) and King Cnut’s laws are also in this section of the book alongside the oldest copy of the coronation charter of Henry I – the wording of which is echoed in the Magna Carta (1215) and the American Declaration of Independence (1776). 
The second part of the manuscript includes the earliest charters of England’s second oldest cathedral – founded at Rochester in 604AD, the oldest known catalogue of books in England and documents concerning the Danish conquest of England in 1016. 
A number of pages in the manuscript display signs of water damage after it became submersed, possibly, in either the River Medway or the River Thames, sometime between 1708 and 1718, when it was being returned by boat to Rochester from London.

The early legal codes are concerned primarily with preserving social harmony, through compensation and punishment for personal injury. Compensations are arranged according to social rank, descending from king to slave. The initial provisions of the code offer protection to the church. Though the latter were probably innovations, much of the remainder of the code may be derived from earlier legal custom transmitted orally.


The Textus Roffensis has been safeguarded by Rochester Cathedral since its inception and has been digitised by The University of Manchester team as part of a Heritage Lottery Funded renovation and community engagement project at the Cathedral.


The Textus Roffensis itself will go on display in Rochester Cathedral next year, as part of the Cathedral’s Heritage Lottery Fund project, ‘Hidden Treasures: Fresh Expressions’, and will enable public access to its remarkable library and other collections and include exhibitions, workshops, events and activities.


Janet Wilkinson is The University of Manchester’s Librarian and Director of The John Rylands Library. She said: “The University of Manchester Library has long recognised the need to preserve its digital material, as well as print, for future generations. I am reassured that this significant piece of history will now survive for future research purposes.”
Find out more in this film produced as part of the project by Manchester Lights Media.
 
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Let The John Rylands Library inspire your Mo!

Noblewoman St Wilgefortis, or Uncumber, grew a moustache & beard to avoid marriage to a Pagan king. Her father was so furious he had her crucified. Women who want to get rid of their husbands still pray to her for help! Be warned!

Noblewoman St Wilgefortis, or Uncumber, grew a moustache & beard to avoid marriage to a Pagan king. Her father was so furious he had her crucified. Women who want to get rid of their husbands still pray to her for help! Be warned!

#jrlphotoaday continues with a distinctly moustachioed theme! Every day throughout November, The John Rylands Library is sharing images from our collections to inspire and motivate all those taking part in Movember 2014.

From the full and thick to the perfectly trimmed, we’ll be sharing moustaches on Instagram and Twitter. Keep an eye out for famous moustaches of World War I poet Wilfred Owen and William Shakespeare!

You can also get involved by visiting the Library and taking a selfie with our statues of John and Enriqueta Rylands, who will be wearing moustaches for the month.

Take a selfie with one of our statues!

enriquetta-rylands-moustache

Follow us today @TheJohnRylands and search #jrlphotoaday.

Movember is a leading global organisation committed to changing the face of men’s health. You can find out more about the charity on the Movember website.

The photo a day campaign supporting Movember will run from 1 – 30 November.

Photo a Day #02

Today is Mahatma Gandhi’s 145th Birthday! We’re celebrating with this illustration of an Indian woman making offerings at a Hindu shrine. Happy birthday Gandhi!

Today is Mahatma Gandhi’s 145th Birthday! We’re celebrating with this illustration of an Indian woman making offerings at a Hindu shrine. Happy birthday Gandhi!

Photo a Day

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This Freedom of the City of Manchester scroll presented to Mrs Enriqueta Rylands in October 1899. Mrs Rylands built the John Rylands Library as a gift to the people of Manchester. Thanks Mrs Rylands!

Throughout October The John Rylands Library will be running a Photo a Day campaign to increase the digital reach and exposure of the Library’s collections.

Each day, an image from the Library’s collections will be shared on Twitter and Instagram. The images will range from portraits of Alexandre Dumas to postcards from a Buffalo Bill scrapbook, and where possible, we will be supporting local, national and international festivals and anniversaries (such as Manchester Literature Festival and Gandhi’s birthday).

Please support the campaign by following us on Instagram and Twitter, retweeting images, commenting on Instagram or sharing your own images using the campaign hashtag #jrlphotoaday.

The account is @TheJohnRylands on both Twitter and Instagram.

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