Category Archives: Photography

The Aberdeen Bestiary – site live

 

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Mole detail from f.24r

 

Back in March last year CHICC travelled up to the University of Aberdeen to photograph their wonderful Bestiary.

Over the course of two days we photographed 345 images, including all pages and details. Given the importance and value of The Aberdeen Bestiary, and the risks associated with taking it out of a controlled environment,the photography was carried out at the Glucksman Conservation Centre in The Sir Duncan Rice Library.

The entire manuscript is now available to view online, with a fantastic website dedicated to the whole project. The site includes all the high resolution images, wonderfully translated text for each page, and a rich history of the manuscript itself.

And don’t miss our last post regarding the panel under the mole above, with the fantastic tale of why a hedgehog has it’s spikes!

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The Lion f.8v

 

Techniques for recovering lost texts

Research Fellow Renate Smithuis and Research Associate Stefania Silvestri, are working on a Catalogue of Codices, Scrolls, and Other Texts in Hebrew Script in The University of Manchester Library.

The Library holds one of the most important smaller collections of Hebrew manuscripts in Europe and this project will create a full, online catalogue compliant with current cataloguing and metadata standards. To support the production of the catalogue, digitisation of a number of manuscripts is being undertaken. All images, included fully digitised volumes, are added to the Hebraica Collection in the John Rylands Library Image Collections, LUNA.

A substantial portion of the Rylands Gaster manuscript collection have already been selected for digitisation, including a number of manuscripts that suffered water damage during the Second World War. The level of water damage varies, some texts are still legible but faint, others have whole sections of pages rendered illegible.

The Heritage Imaging Team have been investigating the best way to recover the text in these volumes, unsurprisingly, we have found that a single solution does not fit all. The aim of this blog post is to demonstrate the different processing options available to researchers. We are researcher-led in the work that we do with Multispectral Imaging of our collections, so if you come across a text you cannot read, please get in touch to discuss your needs in more detail (email: uml.chicc@manchester.ac.uk).

I should note at this point that these examples are not exhaustive and we are always in the process of developing new techniques.

Trials in image processing have been run on pages from Gaster Hebrew MS 1832. The first step of carrying out any specialist techniques is to produce a high resolution ‘standard’ light photographs. These are the images that you can access in high resolution in our online image collections. Often, close inspection at high resolution enables a reader to decipher more than they can read with the ‘naked eye’.

In this example, the first image shows page 1 recto of Gaster Hebrew MS 1832 in ‘standard’ light. You are able to see that there is some faded text on the page but it is extremely faded in some areas:

Gaster Hebrew MS 1832

Gaster Hebrew MS 1832 1 recto standard image

The second image shows a standard high resolution image which has undergone additional image processing in Photoshop. The image has been inverted to help the text show through in certain areas of the page.

Gaster Hebrew MS 1832

Gaster Hebrew MS 1832 1 recto standard image with processing

The third image shows page 1 recto again, a standard high resolution image which has undergone processing in Photoshop to bring out the most faded central areas of the text.

Gaster Hebrew MS 1832

Gaster Hebrew MS 1832 1 recto standard image with additional processing

Here is a detail from each file type for comparison:

The benefit of this approach is that these results can be achieved without any additional imaging of the manuscript and standard photo manipulation software can be used. In addition, once results have been achieved, these can be batch applied to a set of images for an entire manuscript. The results may not be 100% consistent depending upon the range of damage to each page, but if the results are ‘good enough’ it will save many hours of image processing time.

 

Our next example shows firstly, page 2 recto of Gaster Hebrew MS 1832 in ‘standard’ light, plus an example of the same image which has been processed in Photoshop:

However, with this example we took several further steps to recover the lost text. In this instance, the manuscript has also been imaged using Multispectral Imaging. We now use a Phase One Achromatic IQ260 digital back, iXr camera body and standard lens combined with Megavision LED lighting panels and a filter wheel to capture 17 images at different points along the electromagnetic spectrum. I have included 2 images here, take at 370nm (UV) with a long pass violet filter, and at 448nm (Deep blue) as these single images give the best results. In the infrared wavelength, the text on this manuscript disappeared completely, which suggests that it is an iron gall based ink.

 

Using multispectral imaging we are able to take our image processing and textual recovery even further. Using ImageJ software I have combined several of the individual wavelengths to create a ‘pseudocolour’ image. This applies false colours to areas of difference across the page. Note the two images below in colour.

The colour results are not attractive to every eye, especially to the colour blind so can be converted in to greyscale. In the examples here, I have added an additional filter using the Channel Mixer in Photoshop to increase the contrast of the text even further.

Here you can see details of all 8 examples described above, click on the image to flick through each detail.

There are obvious benefits of taking every possible step of image processing to recover as much text as possible. However, there are also drawbacks. The manuscript must be subjected to a second round of digitisation using the Multispectral Imaging system, this is not only time consuming, but for fragile items it also increases the possible risk of damage to the physical item. There is additional time required for the photographer to process the images and store the additional data. Metadata must be produced to accompany the new images and to detail the processing work that has been carried out on the images.

Finally depending upon the nature of the damage to the page, a reader may need to consult a combination of 2 or 3 final processed images in order to read the entire page. Additionally, there must be a flow of communication between the reader/researcher and the person processing the images in order to process the ‘best’ results.

Specialists are currently working on software solutions to allow us to present the data to readers which will allow the reader themselves to combine and ‘play’ with images to suit their needs. We will report on developments in this area when they are available. Until then, we will continue to take a ‘triage’ approach to image recovery, assessing each item against the needs of the researcher to take the right steps to uncover lost texts.

 

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A midsummer night’s dream

We have recently digitised two very charming items from the Rylands Children’s Collections, both of which lend themselves beautifully to a blog post.

The first is an item that I was very excited to come across through a customer enquiry. The volume is Hubert, the cottage youth; : being the sequel to Phoebe, the cottage maid. Hubert is the second in a series of ‘Elegant juvenile’ books of the early 19th century produced by S. and J. Fuller.  The first book is Phoebe, the Cottage Maid which details the daily life of a country girl and the series includes Ellen, or, The Naughty Girl Reclaimed and The History and Adventures of Little Henry. The books are examples of some of the earliest paper doll books, although truthfully, Hubert is less of a paper doll than a paper head who moves through a series of outfits that accompany his story.

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Hubert’s sartorial journey

As is so often the case with children’s literature, the series of books are morality tales where good or conforming behaviour is rewarded and less agreeable behaviours are discouraged and repented. As morality tales go, Hubert is relatively straightforward as a somewhat pastoral figure whose clean living, humble but productive life sees him attain his happy ending. Hubert’s dedication and diligence as a worker pays off, allowing him to afford buy the farm his father only rented and his story ends with Hubert enjoying a prosperous and respectable marriage. In fact Hubert marries Phoebe, she of the prequel to his own tale, Phoebe, the Cottage Maid. Unfortunately, Hubert is the only example we have from this series and sadly our copy is incomplete; wanting at least one outfit and a headpiece.

Unashamedly, we have become slightly obsessed with Hubert; we have digitised the entire story to be enjoyed here the plates and slip case are also available to view here. We have also been happily experimenting with making Hubert a little more animated…

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Careful Hubert!!

 

Our second enchanting item, tying in nicely with both midsummer (yes, it is!) and the celebrations of the 400th anniversary of William Shakespeare’s death, is this wonderful Arthur Rackham illustrated copy of Shakespeare’s popular comedy A midsummer night’s dream.

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This particular volume is from the Alison Uttley Children’s collection. Uttley was the author of the popular Little Grey Rabbit Children’s books and was herself Alumni of the University of Manchester, reading Physics here and graduating in 1906. Here at the John Rylands Library we have the Alison Uttley Papers and a number of books from her personal library.

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Alison Uttley via Wikimedia Commons

Arthur Rackham’s illustrations are familiar to many and we already have a number of Rackham’s beautiful illustrations digitised already and available to view in our online collections. Well known for his illustrations of children’s books, Rackham’s distinctive and sometimes rather dark artwork produces some wonderfully ethereal depictions, entirely fitting for Shakespeare’s fairy realm.

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The entire volume can be viewed in all its loveliness here.

All images unless otherwise stated are copyright of the University of Manchester and can be used under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike Licence.

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Revealing Galen’s Simples at UPenn… and a whole lot more

Processed image of the Syriac Galen Palimpsest at Revealing Galens Simples Workshop, Kislak Centre for Special Collections, UPenn

Processed image of the Syriac Galen Palimpsest at Revealing Galens Simples Workshop, Kislak Centre for Special Collections, UPenn

 

An article published in the New York Times on June 1, 2015, described the discovery of a Syriac manuscript that contained the oldest known translation of Galen’s On the Mixtures and Powers of Simple Drugs. Nearly a year later, scholars, scientists and imaging specialists came together for ‘Revealing Galen’s Simples‘ a workshop and symposium hosted by the Kislak Centre for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts at the University of Pennsylvania. On Wednesday 27th April CHICC’s Carol (Heritage Imaging Manager) Tony and Gwen (Heritage Photographers) travelled to Philadelphia to take part in the event. Here is a brief overview of our time at the conference, and associated meetings, which were truly inspiring and have changed the way we think about the way we work.

Philadelphia on the horizon

Philadelphia on the horizon

We arrived at UPenn on Thursday morning and began our day of meetings with a tour of the SCETI (Schoenberg Center for Electronic Text and Images) digitisation suite. We met with Mick Overgard and his colleagues and discussed all things digitisation, including some skills swap sessions, they demonstrated the new Capture One Cultural Heritage software capabilities – (a vast improvement on the trial we had tested last year – thanks for the demo Andrea!) and we shared our multi-spectral imaging developments and techniques for imaging gold. A really fruitful discussion around advanced imaging techniques followed and we hope that SCETI might join AHFAP so that we can keep the conversation going. In fact we had so much to say that we had to come back after our next meeting to carry on our conversations!

The team at SCETI are very impressive, highly skilled and very friendly – we couldn’t believe that we came all the way to Philadelphia and bumped into a Liverpudlian though (hi Craig!). We were very jealous of the space the team have to work in, each photographer has their own ‘pod’ and they have given us lots of ideas about how to maximise space in our modest studio. I was also particularly impressed with the presence of a record player and a huge stack of vinyl, great idea!

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Following our meeting with SCETI we met with Dot Porter, Curator of Digital Research Services, and Mitch Fraas, Curator of Special Collections, to discuss digital collections, access, discoverability and engagement. Dot told us about different aspects of her engagement work including a workshop she recently delivered to students at Yale on how to access and download digital content and told us more about her video orientations for manuscripts (watch this space!).

We then met with data geniuses Doug Emery and Jessie Dummer to learn about OPENN, a revolutionary way of delivering Open Access image data. The data is presented in a simple structure that enables you to download an entire manuscript in high resolution, very easily using wget. All of the data on the site is in the public domain or released under Creative Commons licences as Free Cultural Works. This repository is now the home of the Archimedes Palimpsest and the Syriac Galen Palimpsest. The data is presented with long term storage and accessibility in mind, and all data is in a digital preservation format. The interface is not inspiring, but is designed so that anyone can use the data to build their own front-end. As more institutions begin to deliver their data in this way, the opportunities for digital curation are endless.

This meeting was followed by a sit down with Mike Toth, Project Manager for both the Archimedes and Syriac Galen Palimpsest Projects and Will Noel, Director, Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts and Schoenberg Institute for Manuscript Studies. Following a very quick ‘get to know each other’ we began to discuss potential collaborative projects and very quickly came up with some very viable ideas. We are now, already, in the process of putting pilots for these projects in place. We will announce developments here.

These very inspiring meetings were rounded off with some refreshments at Monk’s Cafe – the home of so many beers, they have their own bible! (From left to right, Doug Emery, Meghan Hill, Bill Christen-Barry, Mike Toth, Gwen Riley Jones, Carol Burrows. Photo by Tony Richards)

After a very fruitful day of meetings, some refreshment was required!

After a very fruitful day of meetings, some refreshment was required!

Day two began with an exclusive look at the Syriac Galen Manuscript itself, with an introduction from Abigail Quandt, Head of Book and Paper Conservation at the Walters Art Museum and lead conservator on the Archimedes and the Syriac Galen Palimpsest Projects. Abigail explained both the processes for dis-binding (so flat pages of the manuscript could be imaged using multispectral imaging) and rebinding the palimpsest for this project, but also how the palimpsest was made in the first place. The pages of Galen’s text were soaked in some kind of acid, milk or lemon juice maybe, to remove the text – rather than the alternative process of scraping off the old text. After being soaked in acid, the pages were coated with a white chalky substance, which is still visible in some places, before the over-text was written. These techniques have a significant effect of the chemical make up of the manuscript, and therefore how it performs under light during multi-spectral imaging.

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Revealing Galen Simples Workshop Group Photo

Revealing Galen Simples Workshop Group Photo

This fascinating introduction was followed by a series of informal presentations and discussions amongst the scientists and the scholars, before the groups split off to do more detailed work in the afternoon. The scholars had the opportunity to work collaboratively, deciphering the text, whilst the imaging scientists compared techniques for image processing. It was very interesting to compare the benefits of different techniques (there is not one techniques which is ‘best’) and also think about what is ‘good enough’ – a question you can only really answer when imaging scientists and scholars are able to work closely together. Open Access data and spaces for cross-discipline scholarship, such as the John Rylands Research Institute, are the key to enable these types of research partnerships.

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During the afternoon workshop sessions, the CHICC team took the opportunity to take a ‘break-out’ session with Meghan [Hill] Wilson, Multi-spectral Imaging Preservation Specialist, Library of Congress. Meghan has trained in advanced camera and spectral imaging system operation, imaging processing software, database management, metadata creation, digital data storage, and object cataloging. As we are finalising our multi-spectral imaging strategy and workflows, Meghan’s advice and expertise was invaluable. We were very interested in the wide-range of applications of multi-spectral imaging, beyond only palimpsests. We invited Meghan to come to Manchester to deliver advance workflow and data management training for our multi-spectral imaging work, to deliver a seminar to share with curators, conservators and researchers the varied uses of multi-spectral imaging, and to collaborate on some of her own research work in to identifying pigments. I am very pleased to say that we have now secured funding for Meghan’s visit and we look forward to welcoming her to Manchester this summer.

On Saturday was the symposium itself, you can view the list of speakers here. The talks included 3 cross-discipline speakers from the University of Manchester, Peter Pormann, Director of the John Rylands Research Institute and Professor of Classics and Graeco-Arabic Studies on The Final Frontier: Galen’s Syriac Versions and Graeco-Arabic Translation Technique, Dr. Bill Sellers, Faculty of Life Sciences on Working with the Data and Dr Corneliu Arsene, Faculty of Humanities on his new techniques for Revealing the Palimpsest. In addition to the Manchester speakers, we heard from a range of historians, scholars, scientists, conservators and data managers in a truly cross-discipline discussion on the subject. There was also another chance to view the manuscript, in the somewhat more historic setting of the Henry Charles Lea Library.

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In amongst all this work we did get a little time to see some sights, starting with the Liberty Bell (see photographers at work), but somehow the work always seemed to carry on in the bar…! We also came across a statue of ‘Barry’ – who it turns out is a distant relative of our colleague Bill Christens-Barry, picked up some fashion tips for Jamie – who was back at the ranch. Met Millie Emery, Doug Emery’s very gorgeous bulldog! And finally ran up the Rocky steps (well one of us did) in a not so sunny Philadelphia! We had an absolutely fantastic trip, it was so valuable to be able to attend this conference first hand and be involved in conversations with the full team of people that have pioneered these important techniques. We have returned to the UK fired up and ready to develop our work on to the next stage. So a big thanks to the John Rylands Research Institute and Professor Peter Pormann’s AHRC funded project ‘The Syriac Galen Palimpsest: Galen’s On Simple Drugs and the Recovery of Lost Texts through Sophisticated Imaging Techniques’, to all at UPenn, and everyone involved in the symposium. And a special thanks to Mike Toth for his continued excellent work in bringing all of these people together.

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University Photographs – a Fascinating Snapshot!

CHICC’s latest completed digitisation project has made public a significant number of images from the University Photograph Collection. The images are now available in a new discrete Collection, the ‘University of Manchester Archives Collection’

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The Photographic Collection itself, which is part of the University Archives, consists of several thousand fascinating images of University people, buildings and events, dating from the mid-nineteenth century to the present day.  The images provide a rich visual resource for the history of the University and its surroundings.

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This project which was proposed  by Dr James Hopkins, the University Historian and Heritage Manager, will support the University’s History and Heritage Programme which is working to promote the University’s history both to its members and to the wider public audience.  The digitisation of this selection of photographs will enable greater access to, and use of, the University’s historic images for research and engagement purposes.

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Early Medical Printed Illustrations

This month sees the commencement of the ninth annual Manchester Science festival and by happy coincidence we are unveiling in our digital collections images from a recently completed JRRI Seedcorn project ‘Illustrations in the Early John Rylands Medical Collection ’.

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The John Rylands Library holds over 3,000 medical books printed before 1701, however, the catalogue gives minimal information on visual material within the holdings. This digitisation project was instigated by Dr Cordelia Warr to improve the information available on illustrative material within the Rylands early printed medical collections, in order to facilitate teaching and further research.

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The images selected for the project represent a range of disciplines; midwifery, anatomy, surgery and the medicinal use of plants. Research assistant on the project, Dr Hannah Priest, has supplied detailed metadata which accompanies the digital images to further enhance the information available.  The work of Cordelia and Hannah on these fascinating early printed texts will undoubtedly inspire greater interest in the early printed medical collections held by Library. More importantly, it will further a better understanding of the place of illustrative material in medical publications generally, many of which, up to the nineteenth century, were not illustrated or were only minimally illustrated.

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All images Copyright of the University of Manchester.

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Early Medical Printed Illustrations

This month sees the commencement of the ninth annual Manchester Science festival and by happy coincidence we are unveiling in our digital collections images from a recently completed JRRI Seedcorn project ‘Illustrations in the Early John Rylands Medical Collection ’.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

The John Rylands Library holds over 3,000 medical books printed before 1701, however, the catalogue gives minimal information on visual material within the holdings. This digitisation project was instigated by Dr Cordelia Warr to improve the information available on illustrative material within the Rylands early printed medical collections, in order to facilitate teaching and further research.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

The images selected for the project represent a range of disciplines; midwifery, anatomy, surgery and the medicinal use of plants. Research assistant on the project, Dr Hannah Priest, has supplied detailed metadata which accompanies the digital images to further enhance the information available.  The work of Cordelia and Hannah on these fascinating early printed texts will undoubtedly inspire greater interest in the early printed medical collections held by Library. More importantly, it will further a better understanding of the place of illustrative material in medical publications generally, many of which, up to the nineteenth century, were not illustrated or were only minimally illustrated.

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All images Copyright of the University of Manchester.

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Mary Hamilton Papers – NEW COLLECTION!

We are thrilled to be able to announce the creation of an entirely new collection in the University of Manchester Image Collections for digitised material from the Mary Hamilton Papers. Over the past few years, significant portions of the archive have been digitised and made available; now for the first time they are able to be viewed together in a dedicated collection of Mary’s correspondence and diaries.

Mary Hamilton (1756-1816), was a courtier and diarist, who stood at the nexus of several interlocking royal, aristocratic, literary and artistic circles in late eighteenth-century London. The Mary Hamilton Papers themselves include almost 2,500 letters, 16 meticulously detailed diaries, and six manuscript volumes. Together these form a rich resource providing a window into the intellectual and social world of Hamilton’s day, particularly the Court of George III (Hamilton was governess to his daughters), and the Bluestocking circle. Among the major figures represented in the archive are members of the royal family and other courtiers, members of Hamilton’s own family (including her uncle, the diplomat Sir William Hamilton), and prominent members of the Bluestocking circle, such as Elizabeth Montagu, Frances Burney, Frances Boscawen, Elizabeth Vesey and Mary Delany.

JRL1307497, Censored Letter to Mary Hamilton

Censored Letter to Mary Hamilton, Image number: JRL1307497

The most recent digitisation project has made available correspondence to Mary from Princess Elizabeth, daughter of George III, who occasionally addresses Hamilton as ‘My dear Hammy’; from Martha Carolina Goldsworthy, sub-governess to the Royal family and from William, 7th Lord Napier, Mary’s guardian.

 My dear Hammy.. Image number: JRL15070040

My dear Hammy…. Image number: JRL15070040

The papers are already hugely popular with scholars and the availability of these documents online will undoubtedly facilitate new research opportunities and interdisciplinary collaboration for the study of the language and socio-cultural history of Georgian England.

All images are Copyright of the University of Manchester.

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Digitisation of Japanese Maps at The John Rylands Library

Digitised material is progressively being added to the Library’s imaging online collection – LUNA – It has grown to include another small but very important part of our Special Collections.

A number of Japanese Maps have recently been digitised with the support of the Library’s Digitisation Steering Group. The Japanese Collection, assembled by the 25th Earl of Crawford in the 1860s and 1870s and purchased by the John Rylands Library in 1901, is not large by international standards, but it contains a number of manuscripts and printed books of great interest and rarity. Amongst them are a number of 18th and 19th century maps together with topographical or geographical books and manuscripts.

Initiated by Erica Baffelli – Senior Lecturer in Japanese Studies, University of Manchester – The aim behind this project was to select and digitise a number of maps and associated books and manuscripts of the Library’s Japanese Collection in order to preserve and make them available for teaching, research and study purposes. At this stage, 18 maps, predominantly published in Japan during the Tokugawa or Edo period, were selected; most of them represent the whole or parts of Japan. Because of their format and fragility comparing manuscripts side-by-side is very difficult; digitisation can be an ideal approach in making possible the close comparison and contextualisation of a range of maps with related material.

The majority of the maps are folded in original covers, and documents that have been kept folded for more than a century often need more careful handling in order to unfold them; placing the maps onto the photography stand for a few minutes allows the material to be relaxed in order to be flattened; weights placed on top of the surface facilitated the desired result.

In total, 49 images were produced including front and back covers and in some cases the back of the map (verso). Because of their extensive length, 2 maps of the world in scroll format (Japanese 118 and Japanese 118a) were photographed in parts and a single, amalgamated and immaculately stitched image for both items has been created by our skilled photographer Gwen Riley Jones.

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Japanese 118 – Shinsei yochi zenzu – Map of the world divided into two hemispheres.

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Japanese 118a – Shinsei yochi zenzu – Map of the world divided into two hemispheres.

Through digitisation, gradually more maps will become widely available and can be accessed through other sites. Our Collection will complement other digital collections by allowing related materials to be compared and contrasted; an example is the distinguished Japanese Historical Map Collection at the University of California housed on the Berkeley campus in the C.V. Starr East Asian Library. A large portion of this great collection has been digitized by David Rumsey and Cartography Associates and is available for viewing online at the Japanese Historical Maps website.

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Japanese 48: Kaihō Kyō Ezu – Map of Kyoto – Image No.: jrl15070831

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Kaihō Kyō Ezu – Map of Kyoto – Image No.: jhm000232a

Cartographically, The John Rylands copy, hand-coloured with numbers annotated in red ink (Image No.: JRL15070831) is similar to the one from the East Asian Library (Image No.: jhm000232a).

The digital records of the Japanese Maps are now uploaded into The University of Manchester Library, Image Collections – LUNA as part of the Maps Collection. They are freely available for research, teaching and learning purposes, as well as to those with an interest in cartography. Both metadata and images can be downloaded or printed directly from LUNA.

                                                                       Ourania Karapasia

Li Yuan-chia – The Man behind the Artist.

“Over the last 4 months we have been working across teams, (The Visual Collections and The Manuscript and Archives Departments), to try and enhance our understanding of what is contained in the uncatalogued archive of the artist Li Yuan-chia. We have been trying to improve upon the current box list for the collection to enable researchers to have better access to the collection and to rehouse the material into more manageable archival storage.”

Read more on the Rylands Special Collections blog below

Li Yuan-chia – The Man behind the Artist..

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